Active Fuel Cells or Looped Fuel Cells integrate fuel cells and tanks in loops that can be:
Their functionings can be based on:
- catalysis, and
- electrolysis and catalysis.
These systems are very similar to a rechargeable battery, but can store at least four to six times, the newest generation even up to 40 times, more energy than a battery of the same weight and a comp- arable size. Such an efficiency is generally not achievable with elec- trochemical batteries.
Furthermore, by applying the concepts of the Direct and Indirect Multi-Fuel Cells the dependency on hydrogen-based fluids can be given up as well. A further option is to supercharge the different types of fuel cells.
For the construction of drivetrains they can be used alone or in combination with Purely Electric and hybrid components and technologies.
Closed-loop Fuel Cell
A hydrogen fuel cell combines hydrogen from a tank and oxygen from the air to produce electricity. As a result of this only water and heat arise as byproducts. Conversely, water can be divided into hydrogen and oxygen either by electrolysis by using electricity, by catalysis or by both. If the fuel cell, the electrolyzer or/and catalyzer, and the tanks are integrated to a completely sealed closed loop, then noth- ing other than electrical power and waste heat comes out and ener- gy in different manifestations, especially electrical power in the case of the electrolysis-based version, goes in.
In this way the build-up of a whole new hydrogen-based infrastruct- ure and a refueling with hydrogen is not needed anymore. Moreover, by the integration of our other fuel cell technologies that are based on hydrogen oxides further variants have been developed, so that by oxidization in an electrolyzer, which now represents a reformer, water can be regenerated to hydrogen peroxide. With other vers- ions, the semi-closed- and opened-loop fuel cells, the complete cl- osedness or the sealing can be given up, if it thereby results in ad- vantages.
Semi-closed-loop Fuel Cell
With these types of hydrogen and hydrogen oxide fuel cells the complete closeness is given up by storing only hydrogen or/and hy- drogen oxides in the closed loop. Needed oxygen is then taken out of the air during the production of electricity respectively the regen- eration, or released into the air during the electrolysis or/and cata- lysis. Especially the advantages arise, that the substantially heavier oxygen either must not at all be stored in and then transported all the time by a vehicle after the electrolysis or/and catalysis, or only in a higher energetic form after the regeneration.
Opened-loop Fuel Cell
In comparison to the other Looped Fuel Cell types, the closed-loop and semi-closed-loop fuel cells, the complete sealing of the loop is given up. That way oxygen, hydrogen, water and/or hydrogen per- oxide can be refueled, if it is advantageous in a situation to perform no electrolysis or/and regeneration after the combination of hydro- gen and oxygen like other fuel cell types, or to supply faster a fuel cell with new energy.
Opened-semi-closed-loop Fuel Cell
This typ of Looped Fuel Cell combines the concepts of the semi-closed-loop and opened-loop fuel cells.
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